Introduction Electronic Health Records (EHR) help physicians make effective decisions in patient care. With limited research in this area in Kuwait, we sought to identify the factors that contribute to the current use and satisfaction of EHR in Kuwait. Methods This cross-sectional study took place in a public hospital in 2019. Three-hundred ten physicians were recruited through convenience sampling (response rate: 95%). The survey which was translated into Arabic, was self-administered and it contained 48 statements. The Technology Acceptance Model was used as the theoretical framework. The dependent variables were satisfaction with EHR and current use of EHR. The main independent variables were barriers of using the EHR, perceived level of ease for using EHR, and effect of EHR on the physicians’ work. Descriptive analysis, followed by bivariate, multivariate linear regression adjusted for demographics were conducted. Results The study sample consisted of predominantly males (82%), non-Kuwaiti (84%), and of young age (42% were 30-39 years old). The majority of the participants (76%) were currently using the EHR system. The physicians’ satisfaction with use of EHR system was moderate (Mean: 3.47, SD: 0.81, range 1.33-5). The EHR effect on the physicians’ work was the most significant predictor of satisfaction (β = 0.491, p = 0.000), followed by the level of ease (β = 0.274, p = 0.000), and length of use of EHR (β = 0.100, p = 0.006). Perceptions of barriers was the strongest predictor of current use of EHR (β=-0. 417, p = 0.000), followed by level of ease (β = 0.227, p = 0.000) and quality of a related training (β = 0.195, p = 0.000). Conclusions In the promotion of EHR use and related satisfaction, making the use of EHR functions (e.g. registration of clinical notes) as easy as possible seems to be a key factor. Other factors to consider are removing the barriers physicians face, making the benefits of use of EHR visible, and ensuring a high quality related training. Key messages Most physicians in a Kuwaiti public hospital use the EHR system. Perceived barriers, effect of EHR on the physicians’ work, and user-friendly application of EHR are associated with satisfaction and EHR use.